The Italian style influenced strongly many important foreign composers, particularly Germans like Handel !~i.indexOf(e)}))&&this.refresh()},e.getInstance=function(){return this.instance_||(this.instance_=new e),this.instance_},e.instance_=null,e}(),l=function(e,t){for(var i=0,n=Object.keys(t);i Some time before the end of the century scholars and literati started to challenge what they saw as the frivolity of the comic scenes in Venetian opera.

Opera seria had its weaknesses and critics. The opposite of the opera seria is the opera buffa, a comedic opera that was popular in the 18th century.