His exact birthplace is not given by any original source. After abandoning Rome, Otto marched north, reaching Pisa by 20 November.

When Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title.[9]. [6] On his coins, the name and title used by Charlemagne is Karolus Imperator Augustus and in his documents, he used Imperator Augustus Romanum gubernans Imperium ("August Emperor, governing the Roman Empire") and serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus Imperator Romanorum gubernans Imperium ("most serene Augustus crowned by God, great peaceful emperor governing the empire of the Romans").

While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as Roman emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I.

Many of his allies changed sides to Philip, including his brother Henry.

The next emperor was Henry VII, crowned on 29 June 1312 by Pope Clement V. In 1508, Pope Julius II allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Here, probably advised by Peter of Celano and Dipold, Count of Acerra,[23] he was convinced to abandon his earlier promises. We provide the likeliest answers for every crossword clue. Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. [8], The Holy Roman Emperor's standard designation was "August Emperor of the Romans" (Romanorum Imperator Augustus). From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son. The Emperor was crowned in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope in Rome.

Here are the possible solutions for "Name of four Holy Roman Emperors, the last of … Otto was fluent in French as well as German.

Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. ", "___ at Home" (one of three special TV shows of 2020). We will try to find the right answer to this particular crossword clue. The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope. Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740. After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine, with the brief exception of Charles VII, who was a Wittelsbach. The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. Enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, and uphold ecclesiastical unity.

The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, after a devastating defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. [30], This defeat allowed Frederick to take Aachen and Cologne,[30] as Otto was forced again to withdraw to his private possessions around Brunswick,[33] and he was deposed in 1215. [17], At the same time, Innocent encouraged the cities in Tuscany to form a league, called the League of San Genesio, against imperial interests in Italy. [28] Otto soon discovered that after Beatrix died in the summer of 1212, and Frederick arrived in Germany with his army in September 1212, most of the former Staufen supporters deserted Otto for Frederick, forcing Otto to withdraw to Cologne. [6], For this reason, Charlemagne, the King of the Franks and King of Italy, was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope Leo III, as the successor of Constantine VI as Roman Emperor under the concept of translatio imperii. It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century. The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church. Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, and after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. In return, Otto promised to support the pope's interests in Italy. Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. [9], In 1195, Richard began negotiations to marry Otto to Margaret of Scotland, daughter and heir presumptive of King William the Lion of Scotland. From the time of Constantine I (r. 306–337), the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.

It was a tight battle, but it was lost when Otto was carried off the field by his wounded and terrified horse, causing his forces to abandon the field. The seven prince-electors are named in the Golden Bull of 1356: The Archbishop of Mainz, the Archbishop of Trier, the Archbishop of Cologne, the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg. In 1190, after he left England to join the Third Crusade, Richard appointed Otto as Earl of York. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was abolished. [26][27] Subsequently, he tried to conquer Sicily,[21] which was held by the Staufen king Frederick, under the guardianship of Innocent III. [5], Otto took control of Aachen, the place of coronation, and was crowned by Adolf, Archbishop of Cologne, on 12 July 1198. Adolf, King of the Romans, deposed 1298.

[29], Otto's ambassadors from Milan appeared before the Fourth Lateran Council, pleading his case for his excommunication to be lifted. In 1190, after he left England to join the Third Crusade, Richard appointed Otto as Earl of York.

Even after the Reformation, the elected Emperor was always a Roman Catholic. The Empire was considered by the Roman Catholic Church to be the only legal successor of the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. In October he returned to Poitou. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) on the other.

Having failed in his efforts to secure Otto an English earldom or else a Scottish kingdom, in September 1196 Richard, as duke of Aquitaine, enfeoffed Otto with the county of Poitou.

He was met at Viterbo by Pope Innocent and was taken to St. Peter's Basilica, where he was crowned emperor by Pope Innocent on 21 October 1209,[21] before rioting broke out in Rome, forcing Otto to abandon the city. The title was held in conjunction with the title of King of Italy (Rex Italiae) from the 8th to the 16th century, and, almost without interruption, with the title of King of Germany (Rex Teutonicorum, lit. [7] Still, he probably visited Yorkshire in 1191,[6] and he continued to claim the revenues of the earldom after becoming king of Germany, although he never secured them.

[35]. From the time of Constantine I (r. 306–337), the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.

Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period (in exile during 1204–1261). [6], Otto was in Poitou from September 1196 until mid-1197, when he joined Richard in Normandy to confer over the appointment of bishops to the vacant sees of Poitiers, Limoges and Périgueux. [10][9][11] Lothian, as Margaret's dowry, would be handed over to Richard for safekeeping and the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland (Carlisle) would be granted to Otto and turned over to the king of Scotland. Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, deposed 1215. [30], The support that Philip II of France was giving to Frederick forced King John of England to throw his weight behind his nephew Otto.

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