The colonial government recognised this as a potential threat to the stability of the province, and a split emerged in the government between paternalists who favoured intervention to ensure order, and those who opposed state intervention in private property relations. The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state.

Createspace Independent Pub, 2014, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLeviSela2010 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBosworth1963 (, List of cities in the Punjab region by population, "Punjab, bread basket of India, hungers for change", "Columbia Water Center Released New Whitepaper: "Restoring Groundwater in Punjab, India's Breadbasket" – Columbia Water Center", "Pakistan flood: Sindh braces as water envelops southern Punjab", River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river, Commentatio Geographica atque Historica de Pentapotamia Indica, "Pakistan Geotagging: Partition of Punjab in 1947",, "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities", "Population by religion community – 2011", "Punjab-The Leader in Agricultural Sector, Agriculture Today, 2013", "Punjab second richest state in country: CII", Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973–2000, "Punjab govt to identify poorest among unemployed in villages: Amarinder Singh", "Bathinda cleanest in Punjab, but slips to 79th ranking",, Wikipedia articles needing cleanup after translation, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Punjabi-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the, 1911: Parts of Delhi separated from Punjab Province. The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India, whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between what would become India and Pakistan.

[59], The Government of India Act 1919 introduced the system of dyarchy across British India and led to the implementation of the first Punjab Legislative Council in 1921.

[37] Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130 BCE. The first council lasted for eleven years until 1909. [34], The colonial period saw large scale migration within the Punjab due to the creation of canal colonies in western Punjab. Saiyid, the Muslim Women of the British Punjab, p.4. [29][30], The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy to Punjab replacing the system of dyarchy. [39] By June 1858, of the 80,000 native troops in the Bengal Army, 75,000 were Punjabi of which 23,000 were Sikh. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra. [60] Sir Sikandar died in 1942 and was succeeded as Premier by Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana. [34], In 1881, only Amritsar and Lahore had populations over 100,000. [23] The unrest resulted in the repeal of the Colonisation Bill and the end of paternalist policies in the colonies. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). Another definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. [citation needed]. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in today's Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur[20] and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially Peshawar,[21] known in the Punjab region as Pishore). .