There will always be another prime p not on the list which divides Q. The importance of the Riemann hypothesis is that a lot of questions about prime numbers can be reformulated into questions about the non trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. In the first three columns of the image below, you neatly see the prime numbers 5, 7 and 11 with each respective composite ladder up to and including 91. All the non-trivial zeroes for the zeta function are known to lie in the grey boxed, “critical strip” – and the Riemann hypothesis is that they all lie on the dotted line where the real value is 1/2. The function Li(x) is defined for all positive real numbers except x = 1. In the plot above I have graphed the real parts of zeta ζ(s) in red and the imaginary parts in blue. Therefore there must be infinitely many primes numbers. The proof of the formula is one of my favorites, and so I will include it even though it is not strictly necessary for our purposes (it’s just so lovely! Next, take 3, and mark 6,9,12,15 and so on. Really useful! However, the history of mathematics contains several conjectures that had been shown numerically to very high values and still were proven false. TRUE!! In between 0 and 1, I have highlighted the critical strip and marked off where the real and imaginary parts of zeta ζ(s) intersect.

The chaos of the fourth column, showing how the sieve has removed all but the prime numbers, is a fair illustration of why prime numbers are so hard to understand. See their effects in the chart below: In the chart above, I have approximated the prime counting function π(x) by using the explicit formula for the Riemann prime counting function J(x), and summed over the first 35 non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function ζ(s). what values of complex number s cause the function to be zero.

In words, it states that the points at which zeta is zero, ζ(s) = 0, in the critical strip 0 ≤ Re(s) ≤ 1, all have real part Re(s) = 1/2.

Using this identity, one can obtain values for z below zero. Its name relates to the concept of harmonics in music, overtones higher than the fundamental frequency of a tone. You remember prime numbers, right? The plot below shows the function up to x = 200. Since the death of Riemann in 1866 at the modest age of 39, his groundbreaking paper has remained a landmark in the field of prime- and analytic number theory. This could also be the case for Riemann’s hypothesis, which has “only” been verified up to ten to the power of twelve non-trivial zeros. In other words the Riemann zeta function consists of a sum to infinity multiplied by an external bracket. Riemann zeta function, function useful in number theory for investigating properties of prime numbers. The non-trivial zeros are the intersections between the red and blue graph on the horizontal line. Mathematician David Hilbert who himself collected 23 great unsolved mathematical problems together in 1900 stated, “If I were to awaken after having slept for a thousand years, my first question would be: has the Riemann hypothesis been proven?”. Here is a 3000 year old question: Present an argument or formula which (even barely) predicts what the next prime number will be (in any given sequence of numbers), and your name will be forever linked to one of the greatest achievements of the human mind, akin to Newton, Einstein and Gödel. pi(x) is blue graph and shows the number of primes less than or equal to x. To understand how primes are distributed as you go higher up the number line, without knowing where they are, it is useful to instead count how many there are up to a certain number. We call the above function global zeta function.Generally, normal zeta function is different from the global zeta function.So,we express the normal zeta function by using a letter Zin order to distinguish two functions. This functional relationship (the symmetry of s and 1-s) combined with the Euler product formula shows that the Riemann xi function ξ(s) can only have zeros in the range 0 ≤ Re(s) ≤ 1.